Friday, 14 April 2017

The most frequent obstacle to personal growth -- and how to surmount it


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Few people know that sharks change their teeth all the time. New teeth grow on the back of a shark's denture, and then the teeth move progressively to the front side, until they are eventually discarded. Sharks have evolved into constant tooth changers for a reason essential to their survival: They need to keep their teeth sharp for hunting purposes.

If sharks were to lose their razor-sharp teeth, they would be unable to hunt, and it would not take long before they disappear as a species. We human beings don't need such sharp teeth, but we do need to think accurately if we want to thrive. We need to stay alert and proactive if we want to improve our lives. We need to pay attention to what's going on, draw logical conclusions, and implement them consistently.

Unfortunately, we stifle our personal growth all too often because we let emotions distort our perceptions, weaken our alertness, and undermine our understanding.We grow too rapidly discouraged when we encounter failure. We view setbacks too readily as final. We regard obstacles too quickly as insurmountable.

The underlying cause

The underlying cause for this problem --in fact, the underlying cause for our excessive willingness to give up-- is our tendency to think inaccurately,  fragmentarily, and short-sightedly. While evolution has led the shark teeth to grow constantly and automatically, it has not granted us the power to think accurately without effort.

We really need to push ourselves if we want to exercise this capacity, and surprisingly enough, we even have difficulties to remember in daily life the lessons taught by 4500 million years of Planet Earth history, and from the animal evolution in the latest 500 million years:
  •  Even nature can make mistakes in the sort term and have animals evolve into suboptimal shapes and functions, but in the long-term, it will correct those mistakes in an endless pursuit of perfection. Nature has no qualms about acknowledging errors, and reverting to previous shapes (e.g. fish developed legs and become reptiles, and then some reptiles discarded their legs and became snakes). Why on earth would you be reluctant to acknowledge and correct your own mistakes?
  •  Nature has no problems to apply in a new context solutions that have already proven successful in a completely different  context, even if those solutions seem unorthodox and weird (e.g. some species of turtles have developed beaks, similar to those of birds. The beaks make those turtles look weird, but they also make the turtles highly effective in their environment). Is your demand for orthodoxy preventing you from solving your problems, and accelerating your personal growth?
  • Nature tends to operate multi-dimensionally, allowing animals to accentuate useful shapes and functions, even if those are totally unrelated (e.g. while reptiles were learning to fly 300 million years ago, they were also evolving into warm-blood creatures). Is your tendency to think uni-dimensionally preventing you from achieving your goals in unrelated areas? 
Best chances of  success

I recently read the diary of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), and I must tell you that I was not impressed by the depth of Beethoven's philosophical insights. Sure, the man was a musical genius, but an accomplished thinker was he not. I had assumed that excellent skills in one area mean excellent skills in other areas, at least in those that appear closely related, but I was wrong, totally wrong.

Indeed, I was making the quintessential mistake that frequently prevents our personal growth. I was thinking too linearly.  I was interpreting facts incorrectly. I was making unrealistic assumptions. Exercising our capacity to think accurately is a daily and never-ending challenge, but it is our best chance to maximise our creativity, innovations, and achievements.

Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com

Image: photograph of ancient mosaic; photograph taken by John Vespasian, 2016.

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books

 
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 Here are the links to four media interviews, just published:

Saturday, 1 April 2017

The puzzle of intellectual integration

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Have you ever wondered why so many people engage in patently counterproductive behaviour, the sort of behaviour that nobody can fail to view as foolish and irresponsible?

Consider these three examples: Individuals who routinely drive their car too fast, too dangerously, too aggressively. People who spend their earnings on frivolities, and fail to set any money aside for a rainy day. Persons who eat unhealthy food day after day, until they eventually fall sick.

Many of these people are bright, talented, and highly educated. They cannot fail to know that their behaviour is counterproductive: that they should not drive their car in ways that endanger other people's lives; that they should set some money aside for contingencies; that they should adopt a wholesome diet, and avoid unhealthy food.

And yet, these patterns repeat themselves on a large scale day in and day out: road accidents that should not  have happened, financial straights that could have been avoided, illness that could have been prevented.  

The key to solving the puzzle is a message that few people want to hear: intelligence is not enough, talent is not enough, education is not enough. All those factors remain inoperative whenever the human mind refuses to draw logical conclusions.

It is not enough to know arithmetic if you consciously or unconsciously refuse to put two and two together whenever the outcome becomes inconvenient. 

Life offers too many temptations to ignore the facts, too many occasions to deny uncomfortable truths. And yet, we all know that we will be better off in the long run if we push ourselves to do the right thing today.

The best way to protect yourself against those temptations is to adopt the habit of intellectual integration. If you adopt day after day the practice of accepting facts as they are, and drawing logical conclusions, you will spare yourself plenty of heartaches down the road. 

Intellectual integration is not a luxury, but the key to human survival, success, and happiness. Sadly, too many efforts are being devoted to look for excuses for counterproductive behaviour. Let us rather devote those efforts to doing the right thing from the start.

Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com

Image: photograph of classical painting; photograph taken by John Vespasian, 2016.

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books

 
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Here are the links to three interviews, just published:
  

Monday, 13 March 2017

Do not let the 80/20 principle mislead you

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Personal development, as it is understood today, consists of a constant search for shortcuts: How to be more effective. How to be happier. How to earn more money. How to improve your relationships. How to learn faster. How to get ahead.

As a result, a new shortcut becomes fashionable each year: Psychoanalysis. Gestalt therapy. Positive thinking. The law of attraction. The placebo effect. New age. Spirituality. The power of pyramids. Mediation. Tibetan yoga.

If you have tried out any those shortcuts, you must have already figured out their limitations. Fragmentary philosophies lead to fragmentary results. Confusion engenders more confusion. You don't get the right answers by silencing the questions.

The 80/20 principle constitutes the ultimate shortcut. According to this principle, you can render your life more efficient if you focus on your 20% most critical activities. You can multiply your earnings if you concentrate on your 20% most productive tasks. You can be happier if you spend most of your time with your very best friends.

However, none of those shortcuts, not even the 80/20 principle, is going to tell you how to determine your lifetime goals, choose meaningful activities, and select your friends wisely. What would be the point of becoming more efficient at doing the wrong thing? Why would you want to advance faster if you don't know where you are going?

Do not let the 80/20 principle mislead you. Do not make your future success and happiness depend on the shortcut that happens to be fashionable this week. The only way to determine wisely your long-term goals is to adopt a rational philosophy. And the best way to reach those goals is to think for yourself.

Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com

Image: photograph of classical painting; photograph taken by John Vespasian, 2016.

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books

 
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Friday, 3 March 2017

How animals make decisions, and mostly get them right


Millions of people are afraid of taking decisions. They agonize for years about things they know they should be doing, but cannot find the time to do. They wish they could gather the courage, the resources, and determination to get rid of old habits, and go into a new direction. They wish they could explore new avenues, but they seem unable to deviate from their routines.

Indecision and fear of the unknown are universal phenomena. To a larger or lesser extent, everybody is afraid of changing his habits, disrupting his life, and losing what he has. Yet, we all realize that we cannot grow without taking risks, making ourselves uncomfortable, and committing occasional errors.

I have found a solution to push myself over the line, and take those initial, risky steps that can lead to better things. This is a technique I learned from watching animals in nature. Look how young animals decide whether unknown food is good to eat, whether they can explore some new territory, or climb a higher tree.

They don't spend months agonizing about the possible negative consequences, the possible failure and ensuing ridicule. What they do is simply to take a small step, try out the new experience, and see what happens. They take a small bite of the new food, and look around nervously at the new territory. They quickly check out if the new thing is going to work or not. If the adventure proves promising, they go ahead. If it doesn't, they simply take a step back, and return to their old routine.

In my experience, this method can allow you to make 75% of your decisions quickly, and mostly get them right. You don't need to take huge, decisive steps, and put your livelihood on the line. You don't need to risk losing your family, your health, and your reputation. Leave those spectacular life-or-death decisions for movies, novels, and poetry.

High-risk adventures belong to fiction, and that's where they should remain. Human beings usually do better in life if they behave prudently and rationally. More often than not, you will do better if you take a low-risk approach, and increase your bet as you go along. And if the project doesn't work as you expected, you don't need to turn the bad experience into a big deal. Simply cut your losses, and move on.

Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com

Image: photograph of ancient Egyptian sculpture; photograph taken by John Vespasian, 2017.

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books

 
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A simple but effective way to protect your peace of mind

Here are the links to three interviews, just published, about my latest book "Thriving in Difficult Times: Twelve Lessons from Ancient Greece to Improve Your Life Today." 

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Chances are that your life will go through a major upheaval in the next years. Such disruption might be of a nature that you cannot imagine at present. New technology may render your job obsolete. Global competition could devalue your education. A major economic shift might put you out of business.

Substraction becomes addition

Luckily, there is a simple way to protect yourself. All you have to do is to adopt a frugal lifestyle. Reducing your present cost of living can be achieved in many ways, for example, by spending less money on food, lodging, transportation, energy, travel, entertainment, or insurance

The resulting subtraction from your present enjoyment will be more than compensated by gains in long-term security. Commit yourself to save regularly in order to create a margin of safety. Accumulated resources will allow you to face calmly any disaster that the future may bring.

A man who feels confident and serene makes more of his days than an anxious short-term thinker. Too many are those who live under the threat of a mounting pile of debt. They are paying a high price for giving away their independence in exchange for momentary pleasure.

The delusion of stability

Do not fall prey to the delusion of stability. Reduce your current cost of living and create a financial reserve for difficult times because, sooner or later, they will come. If you are undecided about what expenditures to cut, make a linear reduction of 5% in all your budgets and take it from there.

In addition, it is a good idea to have a back-up financial plan for unforeseen situations. For example, no matter how good your health insurance is, its coverage won't be universal. Similarly, your protection in the field of liability indemnity might be less than you think. What would happen if, due to some unfortunate event, you were to lose your protection altogether? Do you have a back-up plan?

Overspending is frequently caused by overconfidence. People feel sure that nothing bad can happen to them. They overestimate their strengths and underestimate their risks. They place their future at jeopardy in order to enjoy transient advantages that will be quickly forgotten.

You will be better off if you reduce your current costs. Aim at creating an emergency fund to which you can resort in times of need. Even a modest financial reserve can do wonders to alleviate misfortune or adversity. Discard the delusion of invulnerability and assess your risks objectively. Make the commitment to save at least 5% of your net income every month.

The psychological benefits

Furthermore, leading a prudent and modest lifestyle has strong can deliver important ethical benefits. Do you believe that all ethical decisions are equally valid? Are individuals who save to buy a home morally equivalent to those who gamble away their salary? Would you take a loan to finance your medical studies in the same spirit as you would borrow cash to purchase a recreational boat?

Rational values align decisions with reality, leading man to certainty and prosperity. In contrast, relativism wears man down by trying to justify arbitrary choices. Happiness needs to be sustained by facts, not by excuses. Personal well-being cannot be maintained by means of inconsistent behaviour.

Creating safety for yourself

Frugality goes hand in hand with logic and realism. You will enjoy life more if you reduce your living costs and create financial safety for yourself. Pick up pen and paper and make a list of ten items of expenditure that you can cut without any negative impact on your lifestyle.

Make more with less by adopting an entrepreneurial approach to life. If you are committed to search for better alternatives, you will find them. If you remain alert to better opportunities, you will seize them. Give priority to safety over short-term pleasure. Serenity and self-confidence will be the result. Reduce your costs and enjoy life more.

Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com

Image by Alaskan Dude under Creative Commons Attribution License. See the license terms under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us 

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books

 
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Saturday, 18 February 2017

Most psychological misery is unnecessary


Here are the links to five interviews, just published, about my latest book "Thriving in Difficult Times: Twelve Lessons from Ancient Greece to Improve Your Life Today."

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Discouragement is frequently viewed as the inevitable consequence of serious problems, but does it really have to be so? If you allow yourself to be intimidated by the economy recession, you might be underestimating your professional chances. If you have endured an abusive relationship, have you lost confidence in people? If you suffer from severe health problems, have you lowered your expectations?

Compounded damage


Past mistakes generate regrets, but those should not constitute a valid excuse for paralysis. Misfortune can modify our perception of reality, but we do not need to lose the sharpness of our vision. When bad experiences lead us to focus on obstacles, it is time to push ourselves to search for solutions.

Although a fair amount of trouble is unavoidable in life, we should not make our situation worse by driving ourselves to despair. People who go through bankruptcy may feel wretched contemplating those who inherit wealth. Similarly, those who go through divorce may envy couples who lead happy lives without apparent effort.

The shock of finding oneself too far away from success is unbearable for many individuals. Sadness and despondency intensify material problems, making them deeper and more painful. Victims who compare their disgrace with other people's prosperity only compound their damage.
 

Useless suffering

The desire to recover what has been lost is natural and healthy as long as it is not exacerbated by social pressure. Most psychological misery that accompanies critical problems is unnecessary. Emotional reactions can aggravate whatever losses we have incurred. Dismay can render victims deaf to common sense and blind to opportunity.

What is the reason of so much useless suffering? What makes people act against their interests? Why do they block their achievements? What's the point of placing additional obstacles on our way? Why does this phenomenon affect so many individuals?
 

A dangerous myth

Those negative consequences can be blamed on the myth of short-term radical improvement. Seldom has an idea wrecked so much havoc in the lives of millions of people. The victims of this wrong conviction are as numerous today as in previous centuries, showing that the lesson has not been learned from History.

A man who has been diagnosed with cancer will only inflict unnecessary suffering on himself if he compares his physical condition with that of an Olympic athlete. The stronger his hope to find a miraculous fix for his sickness, the deeper his anxiety. His conviction that short-term radical improvement is possible will intensify his disappointment when a solution fails to materialize.

Reality is not built on the basis of magic. Placing your trust on luck leads to overconfidence and does not increase your chances of success. Exaggerated expectations, instead of motivating individuals, paralyse their initiatives. An all-consuming desire to turn around immediately one's situation can lead to foolish actions.
 

Unrealistic expectations
 
The belief in short-term radical improvement seems to be deeply anchored in human psychology. Our ancestors that hunted wild animals resorted to magic incantations to turn spirits in their favour. The sale of amulets and talismans in the Middle Ages fed on similar cognitive distortions.

The sick want to heal without delay and the poor want to attain wealth overnight. Victims listen avidly to stories about secret recipes that grant men supernatural powers. Dreams of immediate achievement are predicated and encouraged. Demanding the impossible becomes a trend and people wrongly turn adversity into a claim.

Such approach does not work because it clashes head-on against reality. The world is ruled by the law of cause and effect, not by wishful thinking. Demanding short-term radical improvement can render you ineffective. More often than not, your actions will result in disappointment instead of improvement.

The solution

A wise man knows that, in times of adversity, regaining stability is the first step towards a better life. In medical emergencies, first aid aims at preventing further injury and maintaining essential bodily functions. In corporate insolvencies, the goal of financial restructuring is to avoid bankruptcy and keep a business alive.

On most occasions, expecting short-term radical improvement is unrealistic and demoralizing. Those who suffer from life-threatening disease should focus their efforts, in the first place, on achieving stability and preventing their condition from deteriorating. The rational way of moving forward is to take small but steady steps.

If you have suffered misfortune, you can recover much faster if you discard unjustified expectations of short-term radical improvement. Let go of unworkable plans and exaggerated desires because they will only consume your time and waste your resources. Instead, concentrate on accomplishing stability.

Work your way through difficulties and reinforce your fundamental systems. Take measures to prevent the possibility of relapse. Build progressively on your accomplishments and preclude the chance of backsliding. Discard unrealistic hopes and shun hurtful comparisons. Focus your attention on achieving stability and let your improvements guide you to the next level.


[Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com]

[Image by geopungo under Creative Commons Attribution License. See the license terms under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us]


For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books
 
 

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Sunday, 5 February 2017

Finding opportunities during difficult times

Here are the links to five interviews, just published, about my latest book "Thriving in Difficult Times: Twelve Lessons from Ancient Greece to Improve Your Life Today."

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Achievement is not about having resources or connections. It's rather about what you do despite your limited resources and your lack of connections. In our times of economic recession, each day thousands of people lose their jobs. If you are looking for a new position these days, using Mongol tactics might help you achieve your goal faster.


A proven strategy

During the whole 13th century, Mongols dominated the world. They did not succeed thanks to their meagre resources. Neither were they able to resort to their political connections, since they didn't have any. From being a tribe of shepherds, Mongols managed to grow to rulers of the world exclusively by their own efforts.

How did Mongols win battles against ten-times bigger armies? Even more remarkable is the fact that, physically, Mongols were relatively small in size. Nevertheless, they crushed the Persian, Russian, and Bulgarian armies one after the other, each in its home territory.

If Mongols conquered the world starting with nothing, applying their tactics might give you a decisive advantage in your job search. The three principles that I am presenting here can benefit anyone seeking employment.


Clarity of purpose


First, become single-minded about your purpose. Mongols knew that their life was at stake in every battle and they never hesitated which way to go. It was always forward. Finding a job is certainly much easier than building a world empire, but in any case, determination will dramatically increase the speed of your success.

Since talking yourself into becoming single-minded is unlikely to work, how can you acquire the necessary determination? My answer will surprise you. All you have to do is to be realistic and use basic economic common sense. The truth is that you can always find a job, no matter how bad the economy situation is, because the demand for work, for services, is infinite.


  • If you are willing to accept the salary that someone is willing to pay, you will find a job.
  • You might need to move to another town to get that job, but you can be sure that there is always someone somewhere who needs to get something done.
  • If you are flexible about salary and conditions, there are always people out there willing to hire additional help for their business or private needs. All you have to do is find them.
 
Increase your knowledge

Second, increase your knowledge daily. Mongols possessed pitiful technology when they started to build their empire, but they learned from everyone they met. From the Chinese, they picked up metal-working techniques, from the Persians, they learned how to use smoke screens in battle.

Compared to Mongols living in the 13th century, the Internet allows you countless possibilities to learn at low cost. You can find vacancies in data bases. You can use electronic templates to prepare your curriculum vitae. You can listen to podcasts and watch videos on interviewing techniques. The more knowledge you accumulate, the quickest you'll find employment.

Move as fast as you can


The third principle is the most important. You must move as fast as you can. When Mongols fixed themselves an objective, they gathered information quickly, sharpened their swords, and off they were. Riding horses for hours on end was their daily routine, day and night if necessary, until they reached their target.

You don't need to become obsessed about your job search, but taking relentless action is a proven approach for maximizing your achievements. Take the first step in your chosen direction and follow up with a thousand steps more. Let your learning grow rapidly and it will show you the path to success.


[Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com]

[Image by anna carol under Creative Commons Attribution License. See the license terms under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us]


For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books
 
 

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Monday, 23 January 2017

No reason for pessimism: A crucial lesson from Ancient Greece.


In these times of turmoil, it is useful to take a step back and take a look at the big picture. While the daily news make us stressed and anxious, a historical and philosophical perspective can greatly contribute to enhancing our effectiveness and peace of mind.

While researching Ancient Greek history and philosophy for my latest book, I came across the work of Pyrrhon (360-290 BC), a participant in the campaign of Alexander the Great in the Middle East and Asia.

Like many people nowadays, Pyrrhon had to face large threats and disruptions in his life, and was struggling to make the right decisions and find a way forward.

Facing uncertainty

The historical context has changed, but Pyrrhon's troubles are essentially the same we are facing today: How can we build a good future in the middle of deep uncertainty? Should we worry ourselves to death due to potentially lethal threats?

Pyrrhon' reasoning shows that he must have met Aristotle while Aristotle was in Macedonia, working for King Philip II as a tutor of the young Alexander. Pyrrhon realized that the level of uncertainty he was facing prevented him from drawing accurate conclusions.

Aristotle would have favoured a thorough analysis of the factors involved, but what can you do when the picture is incomplete? How can you preserve your peace of mind when you are facing a many different threats?

Pyrrhon understood that Aristotle's demand for accuracy was unsuitable in highly uncertain circumstances: When you are facing complex threats, you may be unable to figure out all the consequences. When you are encountering deep disruptions, you might lack the time to study all details.

Luckily for us, Pyrrhon figured out what works and what doesn't. And he did this while he was travelling with Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) through Syria, Egypt, Persia, and India.

A solid approach

First, Pyrrhon realized that searching for perfect accuracy in uncertain situations is a fool's game. Such an attempt is doomed to failure, and can only generate stress and anxiety.

Second, he figured out that accuracy is anyway unnecessary in most cases. Pyrrhon came to the conclusion that, when he was confronted with uncertain circumstances, he could obtain good results by taking decisions on the basis of probability.

"Even in uncertain circumstances," wrote Pyrrhon, "a man can often succeed by choosing what seems to be his best option." For sure, he will make mistakes sometimes, but in the long term, he is likely to obtain overall good results by following this strategy.

The approach of taking decisions on the basis of probability leads to self-confidence, increased personal effectiveness, and peace of mind. It constitutes a workable, solid philosophy whose psychological benefits should not be underestimated.

Stress and anxiety 

So what would Pyrrhon do in today’s circumstances? Would he feel pessimistic, stressed, and anxious like millions of people feel today? Would he feel overwhelmed by the problems we are facing?

Absolutely not. Pyrrhon would take notice of the present challenges, acknowledge them fully, and then look at the big picture, which is profoundly positive.

Problems do indeed exist, but the overall outlook remains clearly favourable. Risks cannot be ignored, but things are most likely turn out right.

When looking at the big picture, Pyrrhon would not have missed the fast technological innovation, the entrepreneurial spirit of large segments of the population, and the benevolent attitude towards other cultures that results from increased international exchanges. Those major positive factors are firmly established, and likely to remain with us in the foreseeable future.

Alertness and focus

From looking at the big picture, Pyrrhon would have concluded that there are no reasons for pessimism, at least for the next decades. Despite occasional disruptions and reversals, things are most likely to turn out right. Despite the existence of risks, a positive trend is firmly established, and unlikely to change in the near future.

The central idea of my latest book is that what made the Ancient Greeks so successful in good and bad times was their rationality. Their alertness, pro-activeness, and focus were based on their willingness to look at the big picture, and make good decisions consistently. And when a threat materialised, the Ancient Greeks simply chose the best option available, and moved on.

In his History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides (455-400 BC) pointed out that the armed conflict could have been prevented altogether if the Athenians and Spartans had not blown their differences out of proportion. If they had looked at the big picture, they would have easily found a peaceful settlement, instead of falling prey to prejudice and fear.

The lesson from one thousand years of Ancient Greek history is unmistakable. It is only by looking at the big picture that we can avoid the temptation to succumb to worries and pessimism. It is only by making good decisions, day after day, that we can keep problems at bay, and build a better future.

[Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com]

[Image: photo of ancient sculpture; photograph taken by John Vespasian, 2016]

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books
 
 

Friday, 20 January 2017

Why we have an insatiable thirst for inspiring stories

Here are the links to three interviews, just published, about my latest book "Thriving in Difficult Times: Twelve Lessons from Ancient Greece to Improve Your Life Today."
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You might be surprised to learn that, for a substantial part, comic-book readers are neither children nor teenagers. Enthusiastic collectors know every Spiderman adventure by heart and, nowadays, internet sites allow people to trade old editions of Superman adventures. We cannot tell exactly how many adults are still burning with that flame, but the number goes into the thousands.

The search for inspiration

Romantic movies and pocket books are steadfastly consumed by many women from the cradle to the grave. The details portrayed in sentimental tales have become more explicit in the last decades, but the old feelings are still there. The size of the market, if we include romantic TV serials, amounts to billions of US dollars per year.

The demand for stories continues to grow worldwide, 24 hours a day, never taking a single day of vacation. Since Ancient Greece, the three acts are still played out relentlessly, as though the world had never changed. The discovery of a kindred spirit, the abandonment to passion, and the victory over difficulties fill our television screens, movie theatres, bookshops, and popular magazines.

What lesson can be learned from this flood of adventure and everlasting hope? If you think that this is a meaningless phenomenon, please pause and make a list of the people you know who never watch such films, buy such books, or follow such stories on TV. Chances are that your list will be short. Here is why:

  1. Directness: An important segment of the population draws their ethical convictions from popular fiction, whether in the form of novels, films, or television episodes. Intellectual approaches to morality, philosophy, and happiness are as rare as purely rational investors.
  2. Immediacy: There are good reason why human beings prefer to take their ethical cues from fiction rather than from professional philosophers. If only because movies, TV films, and comic-books are more fun, cheaper, and more readily accessible than sophisticated moral discourse.
  3. Speed: Amongst a wide variety of abstract ideas, it is difficult to tell which one is true. On the other hand, fiction can be quickly judged as entertaining or boring, satisfying or disconcerting. Well-constructed stories present self-contained value assessments that can be instantly apprehended.
Stories convey philosophy

The conclusion is not that you should discard organized thinking and research as tools for establishing the truth. By all means, push your intellectual and business pursuits forward, but do not underestimate the difficulty of communicating complex chains of thoughts to unfamiliar audiences.

My point is that stories offer a short-cut for presenting philosophical ideas. A dry exposition will always lose against a sequence of dramatic images held together by clear motivation. Making your argumentation easily accessible is frequently as important as ensuring that you are building your thoughts on consistent premises.

When it comes to the ability to show what is right and wrong, comic-book characters and romantic heroines form the most effective group of teachers to learn from. Let us acknowledge the power of sharp story-telling, extract the best it has to offer, and use it to our advantage.
 


[Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com]

[Image by holga_new_orleans under Creative Commons Attribution License. See the license terms under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us]

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books

 
 
 


Tuesday, 10 January 2017

Teachings from Ancient Greece to improve your life today

Here is the link to the interview by Chris Shea on his podcast "On Finding Peace" about my latest book "Thriving in Difficult Times: Twelve Lessons from Ancient Greece to Improve Your Life Today."

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How long will it take until you have to face an emergency? Earthquakes are unusual in most parts of the world, but few men are exempted from the risk of fire at home or at work. How would you react if you were attacked by a tiger? What would you do in case of a flood?

Misfortune tends to hit at the most inconvenient moments. When bad luck runs wild, it may cut its path across our lives and destroy the work of decades. Do you have a system to deal with emergencies? Have you prepared a back-up plan for cases of catastrophic failure?

A forgotten lesson

Most people who study Socrates (469-399 BC) as a philosopher retain few teachings of substance. This Ancient Greek philosopher is reputed for his skill at asking long series of questions aimed at revealing contradictions, discarding fallacies, and establishing truth. However, the most interesting lesson from his life is seldom pointed out.

According to Plato (428-347 BC), Socrates loved to question what everybody else considered self-evident. He would engage debates with prominent Athenian citizens and use his sharp mind to demonstrate the immorality of some comforts, the inconsistency of certain principles, and the difficulty of many truths.

Most of what we know about Socrates concerns his death. By the time he turned 70 years old, he had accumulated many friends but also a substantial number of enemies. While a minority of citizens appreciated Socrates' passion for philosophical conversation, he was detested by the subjects of his constant criticism. At one point, his opponents raised charges against him and demanded that he was put on trial.

Although the accusations against Socrates did not make much sense, the important point is that such trial could lead to a death sentence. If we trust Plato's recollections, the charges must have not taken Socrates by surprise. He had spent most of his life in Athens and was well acquainted with its customs and procedures. He knew what he risked if he was convicted.

High levels of stress

The fact of being indicted causes great distress to any human being even if the complaints against him are false. One can hardly imagine an emergency most pressing than having to face a jury invested with the power to weigh your every word and put an end to your life in this world.

Plato's account of the trial describes Socrates' eloquent and passionate defence. The old philosopher countered the charges against him with facts, logic, and courage. He argued for his innocence and invoked his previous services to Athens. He pleaded with arguments that appealed to reason and emotion, expecting to be acquitted or, at worst, mildly reprimanded.

Even so, despite all his strenuous efforts, Socrates was condemned to death. The sentence was executed by making Socrates drink a mixture of hemlock, a Mediterranean plant whose poisonous effects are similar to those of curare: the muscles of the victim become progressively paralysed until he can no longer breathe.

What makes the story fascinating is that Socrates had the possibility to flee but refused to do it. This aspect is so intriguing that Plato devoted one of his works to explain why Socrates agreed to face his accusers at the peril of his life.

Crito, an Athenian businessman, was one of Socrates' friends who stood by him at all times during the trial. When Crito proposed a plan to escape jail, Socrates did not consent. When Crito volunteered to bribe the prison guards, Socrates did not accept.

A surprising decision

Twenty-four centuries later, Socrates' decision seems as incomprehensible as it must have been in Ancient Greece. If you ask anyone in the street about what to do in case of fire, he will tell you to run. When human beings face emergencies, survival instincts often prove more reliable than a hundred essays on ancient philosophy.

Although Plato wrote extensively to explain why Socrates did not flee, the truth is that we have no idea. Xenophon (430-354 BC), an Ancient Greek historian, argues that Socrates was too old and had lost the will to live. How accurate is this theory?

Defeatism, which might apply to those who are terminally ill, seems difficult to conciliate with Socrates' energetic defence during the trial. If he had given up on life altogether, why did he bother to refute the accusations? Why did he try to convince his opponents of his innocence?

Even though we'll never know which version of the story corresponds to the facts, there is a crucial lesson to be drawn. What would you have done? Would you have accepted Crito's offer to escape jail? Would you have fled your city and gone away?

The healthy reaction

Irrespective of the soundness of the charges against Socrates, the tale of his trial might denote a negative aspect of the great philosopher's character: vanity. Did Socrates' desire to demonstrate his innocence and prove his point prevent him from running for safety?

Plato's account shows that Socrates must have been aware that he could not expect a fair trial. How can we understand Socrates' unhealthy reaction to such an emergency? If given the possibility, any rational man would have fled, stabilize his situation, and later tried to erase his accusations.

Taking swift protective action is the proven system for dealing with emergencies. Once you are safe, the next step is to achieve stability and come up with a recovery plan. We cannot ascertain if vanity did Socrates in, but the principle is valid all the same: when an emergency breaks out, put your pride aside and take the necessary action.

[Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com]

[Image: Photograph of ancient vase; photograph taken by John Vespasian, 2016]

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books
 
 
 


Tuesday, 3 January 2017

Train yourself to be more entrepreneurial in 2017

You can win big in 2017 by adopting an entrepreneurial mentality because it will allow you to overcome problems that other people find insurmountable, enabling you to detect hidden solutions and opportunities in difficult situations.

How can you train yourself to be more entrepreneurial? Taking risks, staying alert, and being quick at exploiting chance encounters are things that do not come naturally to most of us. Nevertheless, like any other skill, entrepreneurship becomes sharper through practice or by reading The John Vespasian Letter

The best approach is simply to make a list of those traits that you wish to acquire and work constantly at improving the quality of your thinking. What are the characteristics of the entrepreneurial mind? My own list contains five points.

1. TOLERANCE: What does a moral virtue have to do with entrepreneurship? Everything. Intolerance and inflexibility are deadly poisons when it comes to detecting opportunities and taking initiative. Unless you push yourself to tolerate uncertainty and risk beyond normal levels, your mind will never operate on a high entrepreneurial gear.

2. INDEPENDENT THINKING: Start questioning things that seem self-evident. Why should you follow traditions that make no sense? Can things be improved? Why do we have to wait in line to purchase certain products or services? Is there a better way? When everything is expensive, try cheap. When everything is cheap, try borrowing. The best opportunities lie always below the surface.

3. CONSISTENT AMBITION: There is moral ambition and there is the search of wealth. In addition, many others are embarked in a quest for honours or simply desire to make the world a better place. Pick your choice and keep it present in your mind. What really counts here is consistency. Random changes in your goals will block your entrepreneurial vision. Confusion generates chaos. Consistency of purpose sharpens the mind.

4. DETERMINATION: Whatever path you take, you will face opposition and criticism. Ambition is worthless unless it is accompanied by an iron determination to persist, to try again, to stand up and push repeatedly until the wagon moves. Why do different people possess unequal levels of determination? Personal philosophy plays a major role in this. Those who have a stable, rational, and integrated view of the world tend to advance faster on the entrepreneurial road.

5. A FEELING OF DISSATISFACTION: Contented souls seldom have the drive that is necessary to challenge the way things are. On many occasions, entrepreneurship is linked to personal dissatisfaction with a product, service, or environment. Annoyance and irritation can fuel the motor of change. A strong wish to turn the present into a better future is the thread line of many entrepreneurial careers.


Make your own list of the traits that you want to develop in 2017, and place it in a visible place in your kitchen or bathroom. The world of tomorrow is shaped by those who reflect on their life's purpose while cooking and brushing their teeth.

[Text: http://johnvespasian.blogspot.com]

[Image by individuo under Creative Commons Attribution License. See the license terms under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us] 

For more information about rational living, I refer you to my books